10 Medical Specialties You Should Know About

By Lauryn Page | 04/19/2017

Doctors can specialize in treating any part of the body, and with more than 200 specialties listed by the American Medical Association, it can be confusing choosing the right doctor. Knowing some of the most common specialties can help you gain insight into your own treatment.


An allergist-immunologist evaluates and treats immune system disorders. This could be chronic or severe allergies such as asthma and eczema, and adverse reactions to drugs, foods, and insect stings. They research acquired and congenital immune deficiency diseases as well. Allergist-immunologists are also involved with matching organ transplants and problems caused by autoimmune disease.


Cardiology is an internal medicine subspecialty that treat diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. Cardiologists usually deal with adults with illnesses like hypertension and heart disease with an emphasis on risk-factors and early diagnosis for treatment.

Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT)

Professionally known as otolaryngologist, the specialty provides medical and surgical treatment for diseases affecting the ear, nose, and throat. They treat respiratory and upper alimentary systems and related areas around the head and neck. Specialists are trained in a variety of other medical fields including facial plastic and reconstructive surgery and neurology.


An endocrinologist focuses on the endocrine glands like the thyroid and adrenal glands. Specialists diagnose and treat problems with thyroids, diabetes, and obesity since it is linked to type 2 diabetes. An endocrinologist may provide consultation support for postoperative and chronic diseases patients who need specialized nutritional support. 


Also known as the “cerebral doctors”, neurologists diagnose and treat diseases of the brain, spinal cord, muscles, and autonomic nervous system. Neurological disorders include headaches, strokes, seizures, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurologists are crucial to health care since they deal with vital parts of the body.

Orthopedic Surgeon

An orthopedic surgeon’s training includes the function of extremities and spine through medical, surgical, and physical treatment. They diagnose the disorder or injury and creates a treatment plan that could include physical therapy. Orthopedic surgery is further specialized to sports medicine or occupational medicine.


Psychiatrists diagnose and treat mental, behavioral, addictive, and emotional disorders through therapy and medication. As one of the oldest medical specialties, psychiatrists work with individuals and groups who are coping with stress and other problems. Psychiatrists use the biological, psychological, and social factors to create an effective treatment plan.


Pulmonology is another subspecialty of internal medicine that treats diseases of the lungs and airways. A pulmonologist diagnoses and treats pneumonia, asthma, occupational and environmental diseases and sleep disorders.


Radiology uses images to diagnose and treat various diseases and illness. Primarily based at hospitals, radiologists can specialize in abdominal imaging, nuclear medicine, chest and cardiac imaging, and mammography. Radiologists are often referred to the doctor’s doctor because of their importance in every aspect of medicine.

General Surgery

A general surgeon is trained to manage a broad variety of surgical disciplines including anatomy, physiology, nutrition, intensive care, and immunology. They do not treat neurologic or orthopedic procedures but are familiar with other specialties in case of a referral to another physician. General surgeons are involved with a patient’s treatment beginning with diagnosis to postoperative care.

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